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A Journey to a New Land


Bluefish Caves

The Bluefish Caves site consists of three small caves and is located in the northern Yukon, Canada. Excavations at the site have uncovered stone and bone tools as well as butchered animal remains. These objects have been interpreted as evidence that humans were at the site as early as 25,000 years ago.

The stone tools include microblades, burins, and wedge-shaped cores, all made of imported high-quality stone. Thousands of tiny flakes, the remains of tool-making, were also found.

The bone artifacts include a split caribou long bone that may have been used as a tool, and a mammoth bone flake that dates to about 23,500 years ago. Animal bones with butchering marks were also found at the site, and were dated to between 25,000 - 10,000 years ago.

Not all archaeologists accept that humans were occupying Bluefish Caves by 25,000 years ago. Some say that the cut marks on the bone objects could have been caused by natural events such as rock falls or carnivore gnawing, rather than by human actions. The stone tools were definitely created by humans, but could not be dated and so cannot provide evidence that humans were at the site 25,000 years ago.